NR714 Week 7 All Modules Quizzes Latest November 2018

NR714 Application of Analytic Methods II

Week 7 Module 1 Quiz

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Question 1

Which of the examples below demonstrates generalizability?

  A commercial endotracheal tube stabilizer was tested in the ICU at a rural hospital and found to be effective in preventing device-related circumoral pressure ulcers. The Chief Nursing Officer has now approved the device to be used in the Burn Unit.


  A new pain medication was shown to be effective in a group of osteoarthritis patients in a major metropolitan city and subsequently has been approved for use for all osteoarthritis patients nationwide.

  A new helmet law was implemented in a Midwestern state. In response to this new legislation, hospital X has begun to give free helmets to patients upon discharge.

  A second generation antihypertensive drug is FDA-approved and added to the DNP curriculum in a major university.


Question 2


Which of the following examples demonstrates transferability?


  You read a research article that reported that music therapy decreased anxiety in pre-operative patients. Subsequently you obtained approval to use music therapy at your hospital with pre-operative patients.

  You identify several key research studies in your hospital’s searchable database and transfer them to your personal files.

  A nurse implements a new evidence-based intervention aimed at reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). He is unable to adhere to the demanding work schedule and is transferred to another unit.

  You conduct a randomized control trial (RCT) with a sample of Myasthenia Gravis patients. You are now able to apply this statistically significant RCT to the general population of Myasthenia Gravis patients.


Question 3


All of the statements are true of transferability EXCEPT:

  If there are sufficient similarities between the research and our own clinical situation, we may be able to infer that the results of the research would be similar in our situation.

  When reading a research article, we note certain characteristics of the study and consider the applicability to our own clinical practice.

  We must know as much as possible about the original research in order to determine if the results are applicable to our own practice.


  We can transfer or apply any study results to our own practice as long as the study was reliable and valid.


Question 4


The concept of transferability is constantly applied in everyday life. Some examples include (Select all that apply)


  A professor sits in on a colleague’s class to see if he can apply new and effective teaching techniques in his own classroom.


  A busy nurse, wife and mother, on her day off watches a cooking show to determine what quick, easy and nutritious meals she can prepare for her family.


  An individual is engaged in a conversation with a friend about the benefits about a new vehicle that would add convenience to her own life.

  A neighbor tells you that he has come up with a new health plan for him and his family and that everyone in the world should adopt this same plan.


Question 5


Examples of generalizability in everyday life include (Select all that apply)

  As health care professionals, we make the assumption that poor diet and lack of exercise puts individuals at risk for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  In the United States, we make the assumption that everyone will drive on the right side of the road.

  We make the generalization that everyone in the United States speaks English and abides by American customs.

  We make the assumption that driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol can lead to accidents.


Question 6


You overhear two nurse colleagues talking about a research study on Diabetes, recently conducted at your hospital. You hear them say, “The results showed that children with Type II Diabetes responded well to a new anti-hyperglycemia drug at our hospital. We can now generalize our findings to women with pregnancy-induced Diabetes.” You are excited to join their conversation. What is the most appropriate response?

  “I couldn’t help but to overhear your conversation about our exciting Diabetes research study. I am excited because women all over the world with pregnancy-induced Diabetes will finally have an effective drug to control their hyperglycemia.”


  “I couldn’t help but to overhear your conversation about our exciting Diabetes research study. Since our study was aimed at children with Type II Diabetes, we cannot generalize our results women with pregnancy-induced Diabetes.”

  “I couldn’t help but to overhear your conversation about our exciting Diabetes research study. We can generalize our findings because we used a nonprobability sample.”

  “I couldn’t help but to overhear your conversation about our exciting Diabetes research study. Generalization is feasible because we have a very large sample size.”


Question 7


You read a research article on a study aimed at reducing central line associated blood stream infections (CLBSIs). The authors report that a detailed protocol using chlorhexidine was statistically significant in reducing CLABSIs by 98% in their study sample of 5678 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) patients. Which of the following statements is accurate?


  The findings from the CLABSI study can be applied or transferred to a neonatal intensive care unit at your hospital to reduce CLABSIs.

  While the findings are impressive and statistically significant, further research is warranted in NICU patients.

  The findings can be generalized to an adult ICU in a Magnet hospital in Beirut, Lebanon.

  The findings from this study can be generalized to a general Respiratory ICU unit at the same hospital.


Question 8


When reviewing research study results aimed at reducing fall rates among elderly patients at hospital X, which statement most likely indicates representativeness of the sample related to the general target population at large?

  The sample consisted of 50 elderly patients on Central Nervous System depressant drugs that put the study patients at risk for falls.


  The sample consisted of a randomly selected subset of 6000 elderly patients over a 1-year time frame.

  The sample consisted of 200 elderly outpatients on a strict health regimen consisting of probiotics, exercise and adequate nutrition and not taking any prescription drugs.

  The sample consisted of 100 elderly patients whom ranged in age from 65-70 years in the study over a 1 week period.


Question 9


You have been asked to select a random sample of 1000 patients in your 5-hospital system for a proposed study aimed at reducing hospital readmissions. Each of the 5 hospitals has 600 beds. Which of the following approaches is best?

  You spend a week going from room to room in each hospital, explaining the study to each patient and asking for volunteers for the study, making a list of the 1000 patient names who agree to participate.

  You ascertain a list of all patient names and room numbers from each of the 5 hospitals and call each patient room asking for patient volunteers for the study.

  You post flyers at the nursing stations of each unit at all 5 hospitals and explain the proposed study to the nursing staff. The nursing staff will recruit patients and contact you with the names and contact information for each patient who is interested up to 1000.


  You obtain a list of all patient names in each of the 5 hospitals in the system and assign each name a numerical value. Using a table of random numbers, you select 1000 numbers (patients).


Question 10


A nurse colleague wants to survey nurses on his unit to determine the level of RN satisfaction. He proposes to administer a pre-test survey and design a practice change based on the results. He then proposes to administer a post-test to determine if the new intervention was effective. You recognize right away that the sample will be a nonprobability, nonrandom or convenience sample. All of the statements below are accurate EXCEPT:

  A convenience sample in this case is appropriate because the nurse simply wants to make an effective practice change on his unit directly.

  Findings from this proposed study cannot be generalized to the larger population of RNs.

  Findings from this proposed study can be transferred to other units in the hospital.


  The proposed study will not be reliable or valid because the sample will not be randomly selected.







NR714 Application of Analytic Methods II

Week 7 Module 2 Quiz

Question 1


A nurse researcher in a large medical center is reviewing data from a study recently conducted on reducing the number of ventilator-associated pneumonia cases. She wants to obtain information on the spread of the data. This information will tell her how close or far apart the scores are from each other. This is known as




  Subject participation

  Data cleaning


Question 2


A research article reports a limitation in the published study that the sample size was too low. How might this low sample size affect the study?

  The study will not be affected by a low sample size.

  The study will not be cost effective and resources will likely be wasted.


  The study results may not be reliable and research questions may not be accurately answered.

  The researcher will have to go back and include more participants in the study to increase the sample size which will delay completion of the study.


Question 3


As you read more closely into the study results, you see that the scores of the new nursing mothers are very far from the mean or average score. You think back on your research class and realize that that this means that the study scores have a large _______________.



  standard deviation





Question 4


Another study results show all of the scores in the center of the distribution curve. In other words, the average or mean scores are 50%. This means that the study has very little or limited (select all that apply)









Question 5


You are talking to a nurse colleague who is proposing to conduct an innovative research study using warming blankets on patient pre-surgery to determine if post-operative complications are reduced. He tells you that he does not plan to perform a power analysis because he is including all patients scheduled for surgery over the next 6 months which will give him a sample size well over 4000 subjects. Which of the responses below is the most appropriate?


  “Performing a power analysis helps to make sure that more subjects are not included than is necessary because excess resources may be used with little added benefit to the study.”

  “That is great that you have such a high number of subjects, as the large number of subjects will increase the reliability of your study.”

  “Too many subjects will decrease the reliability of the study, regardless of cost.”

  “That is a good sample size, but did you get approval for subject payment to make sure there is enough money in the research budget?”


Question 6


A nurse colleague tells you that it is not important to perform a power analysis because he already knows that his sample size will be small in an upcoming study he is conducting on safety reporting on falls. The small sample size is already a known limitation. Which is the best response to the nurse?

  “I see your point, the power analysis is used to determine sample size. It will be a waste of time and resources to perform the analysis since we already know the power will be limited.”

  “The power analysis must be conducted regardless as mandated by state regulations.”


  “While the power analysis does help determine sample size, it is helpful in determining the likelihood of your statistical test will be in detecting effects of that size in your particular situation.”

  “If your sample size is that small, it will not be advantageous to conduct the research.”


Question 7


A nurse is discussing a recent research study with the hospital biostatistician. The study compared two groups of patients who received diagnostic breast biopsies to detect malignancy. One group received lavender aromatherapy and the other received jasmine aromatherapy. The hypothesis was that there would be a statistically significant difference in anxiety level between the two groups. More specifically, the assumption was that the lavender group would demonstrate a significant drop in anxiety level. He tells the biostatistician that he is concerned because the study results indicated that the null hypothesis turned out to be true. In fact, both groups showed a decrease in anxiety level despite the fragrance. What does this mean, and does the nurse have a reason for concern? Please select the best answer.

  The nurse has a legitimate concern because the null hypothesis means that there  was no difference between the groups. Since both groups’ anxiety level was                                 decreased, the study is meaningless.

  The nurse has a legitimate concern because the study was a waste of time and                         human and financial resources. The hospital will have to be reimbursed.


  The nurse’s concern is unwarranted because just because the results were not as     expected, important data were gathered and information about clinical practice was learned. The reason for research is to answer a question because although we may suspect the answer, we do not know.

  The nurse does have a legitimate concern since the null hypothesis was correct and                 the study should be replicated with a larger sample size.


Question 8


You have been asked to present the four major measures of variability to your hospital research team, including: (choose all that apply)


  range and interquartile range





  standard deviation


Question 9


The normal distribution curve depicts the distribution of all possible scores in a research study where the majority of the scores, or the mean or average scores would fall in the center of the curve. The closer the scores are to this midline means less







Question 10


You are reading a research article and you see that the scores fall primarily in the midline of the distribution curve. This curve is known as a


  Normal distribution.

  Skewed distribution.


  Power distribution.



NR714 Application of Analytic Methods II

Week 7 Module 3 Quiz

Question 1

You have just been hired at Hospital X as Director of Nursing Research. You propose to conduct a study aimed at educating homeless women at risk for AIDS. The research coordinator asks how you will reach out to all homeless women in the city. What is the best response?


  “Rather than trying to reach all homeless women in the city, we will include a sample of homeless women that are a reasonable representation of this population.”

  “Research coordinators will ‘comb’ the city streets until we include all homeless women in the study”.

  “We cannot realistically include all homeless women in the city, but we will try to include as many as we can find.”

  “We only need to include a few homeless women in the study.”


Question 2


The term that captures the entire target group of individuals under study is referred to a



  confidence interval




Question 3


You are conducting a research study on the effectiveness of normal saline administered subdermally compared to lidocaine to reduce pain during IV insertion. If subjects getting lidocaine are in the experimental group, the subjects getting the inert normal saline are in the


  control group

  preliminary group

  sample group

  research group


Question 4


The same colleague asks you now to define the sample in research. Which is the most accurate response?


  “The sample is a subset of the population that the researcher intends to study.”

  “The sample is a group of individuals used in a pilot study before the actual study is conducted.”

  “The sample is a small group of study participants who drop out of a research study.”

  “The sample refers to a partial subject payment paid to study participants at the start of a research study.”


Question 5


In the inner city study investigating the impact on air quality on childhood asthma, what is the study sample?


  “The study sample is a randomly selected subset of all inner city school-aged children in city X.”

  “The study sample is the entire group of inner city school-aged children in city X.”

  “The study sample is a small self-selected group of inner city school-aged children diagnosed with asthma.”

  “The study sample is the group of all inner city school-aged children with asthma and their parents.”


Question 6


If a researcher tells you she achieved a narrow interval, in which there is little difference between lower and upper limits. The narrow confidence interval indicates

  an inaccurate measure of how well the true measure of the parameter is estimated.

  a satisfactory, but less desirable estimate than a wide interval.

  a less precise estimate than does a wide interval.


  a better and more precise estimate than does a wide interval.


Question 7


You are attending your hospital’s monthly Institutional Review Board (IRB) meeting and the Principle Investigator, Dr. King, reports to the group that she has a 95% confidence interval in her weight loss study. You clarify this statement to the team by saying


  “Dr. King is 95% confident that the majority of her subjects will lose the expected estimated weight.”


  “Dr. King can say that she is 95% sure that the “true” population value of the    difference in weight loss will fall somewhere between the lower and upper limits.”

  “Dr. King cannot be 95% certain that the “ true” population value of the difference in weight loss will fall between the lower and upper limits.”

  “Dr. King can say with 95% certainty that the estimated weight loss parameters will fall outside the lower and upper limits.”


Question 8


Thinking about the previous study on pain tolerance among men and women at the rural community hospital, what would be an expected alternative hypothesis? Select all that apply.


  There will be a significantly higher pain tolerance in women than men.


  There will be a significantly lower pain tolerance in women than men.


  There will be a statistically significant difference in pain tolerance between the two groups.

  There will be no difference in pain tolerance between women and men.


Question 9


Which statement below would be true if a t-test was not performed in the previous beta blocker study.

  There would be no consequences of not performing the t-test for both groups.

  Without the t-test, the results would indicate the reverse, showing beta blockers to be more effective in the younger group.


  We would not be able to accurately compare effectiveness of the beta blockers in each group with precision.

  Without performing the t-test, the results would inaccurately indicate that the beta blockers are more effective in the older group.


Question 10


You are reading a research article about the effectiveness of exercise on lowering cholesterol. The study used two groups, where one group was given an exercise regime, while the other group avoided exercise. What is the null hypothesis for this study?

  There will be a statistically significant difference between the exercise and the sedentary groups.


  There will be no statistically significant difference between the exercise and the sedentary groups.

  There will be a statistically significant decrease in cholesterol in the sedentary group.

  There will be a statistically significant decrease in cholesterol in the exercise group.






NR714 Application of Analytic Methods II

Week 7 Module 4 Quiz

Question 1


You have been asked to be a guest speaker on prevalence and incidence rates at a local university. What is the best introductory statement to begin your lecture?

  “Prevalence rates are very different from incidence rates and will be discussed in two different classes.”

  “Prevalence and incidence rates are the same concept; therefore, we need only discuss one”.


  “Prevalence rates and incidence rates are related, but distinct concepts.”

  “Incidence rates are often expressed in fractions or ratios.”


Question 2


You are a scientific voting member on a community hospital institutional review board. You are the primary reviewer for a research study aimed at reducing the occurrence of Diabetes among young adult African-Americans in the U.S. Part of the background information in the protocol states that in 2010, 18.7% of all African-Americans with Diabetes were aged 20 years and younger. You explain to the board that this percentage represents


  prevalence of Diabetes in African-American young adults.

  incidence of Diabetes in African-American young adults.

  the mean or average number of Diabetes cases in African-American young adults.

  a genetic component of Diabetes cases in African-American young adults that cannot be changed with diet.


Question 3


A nurse researcher tells you about a research study that reported 15,600 new cases of Type I Diabetes annually between 2002 and 2005.  She says that this is an unacceptable prevalence rate for Type I Diabetes and that as a Nurse Practitioner, she has an obligation to provide patient education in her practice. What is your best response to her?

  “I agree that we need to make every effort to reduce this prevalence rate.”


  “I agree that we should focus our attention on reducing the incidence of Type I Diabetes. 15,600 new cases indicates incidence rather than prevalence.”

  “Those may be cases related to genetics, so providing education may not help’”

  “That is a small prevalence rate, so I would rather provide education in other areas.”


Question 4


You are asked to explain the difference between prevalence and incidence to the administration team at your hospital. Which is the best response?


  Incidence refers to new cases of a disease, while prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease. For example, the incidence rate is the number of new cases per            population, while prevalence is the number of existing cases per population.

  Prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease, while incidence refers to new cases   of a different disease within the population of interest.

  Prevalence refers to new cases of a disease, while incidence refers to existing cases    of a disease. For example, the prevalence rate is the number of new cases per         population, while the incidence is the number of existing cases per population.

  Prevalence refers to existing cases of a disease, while incidence refers to new cases   of the same disease in a different population.


Question 5


A nurse colleague confers with you regarding a research article he is reading aimed at reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). The authors report a baseline finding on the prevalence of CAUTIs in a large metropolitan hospital. Of the 325 patients who had indwelling urinary catheters, 18 were found to have a CAUTI. Which response below is indicative of prevalence in this population?

  There is insufficient information to determine the prevalence rate

  Without the hospital bed size, the prevalence rate will not be accurate

  325/18 = 18.05


  18/325 = 0.055


Question 6


The local Quickie Clinic is known to be busy and at capacity throughout the year. You are looking into the number of patients presenting with hypertension. Each year, 37,000 patients are seen and 20,000 of these patients are diagnosed with hypertension. What is the incidence of newly diagnosed patients each year?

  20,000/37,000 = 0.54



  37,000/20,000 = 1.85



Question 7


As a nurse researcher, you know that some cases of prevalence are reported per 100,000 people. This is helpful when the prevalence rate is low. For example, if your hospital has 50 dermal ulcers per 100,000 patients, it is easier to report 50/100,000 patients than 0.0005. With this knowledge in mind, which of the following statistics would be more suited to report by cases per 100,000?







Question 8


A fellow nursing student tells you that he proposed to conduct a research study on the impact of air quality on the incidence of lung cancer in his hometown. What information is the student aiming to collect?

  The prevalence of lung cancer cases in his hometown.

  The percentage of existing cases of lung cancer possibly related to poor air quality.

  The number of lung cancer cases per 100,000 residents in his hometown.


  The number of newly diagnosed cases of lung cancer in his hometown.


Question 9


Let’s say you are relocating to a new city for a new career opportunity. Which of the following scenarios would you be more likely to choose?


  City A where Asthma prevalence rates are high, but incidence rates over the last 2 years were zero.

  City B where Homelessness prevalence rates are low, but incidence rates are increasing by 20 each year.

  City C where the prevalence rates for Parkinson’s rates are high and incidence rates over the past 5 years are equally high.

  City D where TB prevalence is high, but incidence of TB is on a slight decline.


Question 10


You read a news report about a high prevalence rate of lung cancer in a local community. You read further to find that the incidence rates of lung cancer have rapidly declined over the past 5 years. What would be the most plausible explanation below for these findings?


  The community’s smoking cessation campaign has been effective.

  There is not enough information.

  Smoking has likely increased among the population.

  The use of asbestos in construction has increased.


NR714 Application of Analytic Methods II

Week 7 Module 5 Quiz

Question 1


You have been asked to present a poster at a well-known university in a major U.S. city. You study findings suggested that the earlier the diagnosis of cancer is made in lung cancer patients, the longer the survival rate. Which of the following graphs would you include on your poster?

B quiz 5 Qu1.png

C Quiz 5 Qu1.png

D Quiz 5 Qu1.png



Question 2


You are asked to join the hospital institutional review board as a scientific voting member. Your very first research study to review is on where the new intervention, Lavender aromatherapy was shown to decrease anxiety in breast biopsy patients at a local hospital. Which variables are the independent and dependent variables?

  Anxiety is the independent variable and aromatherapy is the dependent variable.


  Anxiety dependent variable and aromatherapy is the independent variable.

  Breast biopsy is the independent variable and anxiety is the dependent variable.

  Aromatherapy is the independent variable and biopsy is the dependent variable.


Question 3


You received a report that the catheter-associated infection (CAUTI) is high in your hospital. You decide to conduct a research study aimed at removing indwelling urinary catheters from patients within 48 hours of insertion, to investigate the impact on CAUTIs. When your study is complete, your results suggest that when the number of urinary catheters went down, CAUTIs went down. This is an example of a


  positive correlation

  negative correlation


  scatter plot


Question 4


A prestigious university invited you to come as the keynote speaker on le

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